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8彩彩票 > 技术与支持 > 关于消防应急疏散系统在高层建筑中的研究与应用
关于消防应急疏散系统在高层建筑中的研究与应用
点击次数:46 发布时间:2021-08-28

摘要:8彩彩票安全疏散设计不合理是导致高层建筑火灾中人员伤亡的主要原因之一。本文参照消防技术规范,分析了高层建筑的火灾特点,探讨了高层建筑安全疏散中常见的问题,从缩短疏散时间和延长危险来临时间两个角度,从管理和技术两个方面提出改进高层建筑安全疏散的对策。通过研究对于指导高层建筑安全疏散的设计、管理、使用具有一定指导意义。

关键词:8彩彩票高层建筑;安全疏散;对策

1前言

      SUIZHEJINGJIJIANSHEDEXUNSUFAZHAN,WOGUOCHENGSHIJIANSHETUFEIMENGJIN,GAOCENGJIANZHURUYUHOUCHUNSUNBANBADIERQI,GAOCENGJIANZHUFASHENGHUOZAISHIRENYUANDETAOSHENGSHUSANBIPUTONGJIANZHUNANDUGENGDA。HUOZAITONGJIZILIAOBIAOMING,JISHICHUQIMIEHUOSHIBAIMEINENGKONGZHIHUOSHIDEFAZHANMANYAN,DANRUONENGHELIDIZUZHISHUSAN,YEHUIYOUXIAODIJIANSHAORENYUANSHANGWANG。BENWENFENXILEGAOCENGJIANZHUANQUANSHUSANZHONGCUNZAIDEWENTI,YOUZHENDUIXINGDITICHUDUICE,YIQIDUIYUGAOCENGJIANZHUANQUANSHUSANSHEJI、GUANLI、SHIYONGNENGYOUSUOBANGZHU。

2高层建筑火灾特点

2.1功能复杂,起火因素多

      高层建筑内部功能复杂,使用单位多,火灾隐患多,容易引起大的火灾事故。随着我国经济的发展,高层建筑向多功能方向发展,大多都集客房、办公、餐饮、购物、娱乐8彩彩票、会议中心等于一体,因此,导致火灾发生的因素是多种多样的。

2.2火灾蔓延途径多

       GAOCENGJIANZHUJIEGOUFUZA,LOUTIJIAN、DIANTIJING、GUANDAOJING、DIANLANJING、PAIQIDAO、LAJIDAODENGSHUXIANGGUANJING,RUGUOFANGHUOFENGECHULIBUHAO,FASHENGHUOZAISHI,HAOXIANGYIZUOZUOGAOSONGDEYANCONG,CHENGWEIHUOSHIMANYANDETUJING【ll。LINGWAI,FENGLIDUIZHUZHANGHUOSHIMANYANYOUHENDADEZUOYONG。

2.3疏散困难,易造成群死群伤的恶性火灾事故

8彩彩票       JIANZHUGAODUYUEGAO,CHUIZHISHUSANJULIZEYUEZHANG;JIANZHUMIANJIYUEDA,RONGNADERENSHUYEJIUYUEDUO;JIANZHUGONGNENGYUEFUZA,WANGWANGSHUSANTONGDAOYEYUEQUZHEFUZA。ZHEIXIEDOUZENGJIALERENYUANSHUSANDENANDU。ZAIHUOZAIQINGKUANGXIA,YOUYUSHOUHUOZAIYANQIDEYINGXIANG,RENMENHUICHANSHENGKONGJUHEMANGCONGXINLI,JIYIZAOCHENGYONGJIHEDUSAI,RENYUANSHUSANJIANGGENGJIAKUNNAN。

2.4火灾扑救难度大

8彩彩票      GAOCENGJIANZHUFASHENGHUOZAISHI,XUYAOMIEHUO、LENGQUEHEKONGZHIHUOSHIMANYANKUODADEXIAOFANGYONGSHUILIANGXIANGDANGDA,DANYOUYUSHOUSHUIDAINAIYAQIANGDUHEXIAOFANGCHEGONGSHUIGAODUDEXIANZHI,CHANGYINGONGBUSHANGSHUIERYANWUMIEHUODEYOULISHIJI。LINGWAI,YOUYUDIANTITINGYONGYIJIDAOLUBUTONGDENGYUANYIN,YOUZENGJIALEMIEHUODENANDU。

3高层建筑安全疏散中存在的问题

3.1设计方面的问题

       GUIFANYIBANBUMINGQUEZHICHUHELIDEANQUANMUBIAOHUOBIAOZHUNSHISHENME,ERSHIJICHUSHEJIDEJIAODIBIAOZHUN,NANYIDADAO“ANQUANXING”HE“JINGJIXING”DEHELIPIPEI。RUGUOYIWEIDEANGUIFANSHEJI,ERBUKAOLVRENYUANSHIFOUZHENDENENGGOUANQUANSHUSAN,ZHEIYANGYILAI,SHUSANJIUSHIQULEBENLAIDEYIYI,BUZAI“ANQUAN”。RU:GAOCENGJIANZHUNEIBUSHEZHILEPAIYANSHESHI,BINGQIETONGSHIGUIDINGLERENYUANDAODAANQUANQUYUDEJIAOYUANJULI,DANSHIMEIYOUKAOLVDAOPAIYANSHESHISHIXIAOSHI,RENYUANNENGFOUANQUANDESHUSANDAOANQUANQUYU。TONGSHI,SHIJISHEJIZHONGYOUYUGEZHUANYEXIEDIAOBUHAO,SHEJIZHONGGEZIWEIZHAN,JIEGUOZAOCHENGXUDUOYINHUAN。

3.2管理方面的问题

3.2.1现存管理模式存在弊端

       消防机构审验力量不足,难以实施全程监督,存在失控漏管;审验从业人员业务素质、技术水平跟不上建筑技术的发展速度;消防部门的全面包办,给有关部门造成了过分依赖心理;此外,设计人员水平参差不齐,建设单位重视程度不够,使用单位日常管理状况差;行政干预妨碍执、法

3.2.2经营或使用单位管理不严

       高层建筑的经营者或使用者是其消防管理的主体,他们的行为在很大程度上影响着高层建筑的安全。然而,很多经营者违反使用规定,带来很大的火灾隐患。如餐厅、舞厅、酒吧间以及游乐场、礼堂、影剧院和体育馆等公共场所,往往没有额定人数规定,造成场内严重超员;在建筑物内焚烧可燃物品,燃放烟花、爆竹占用建筑物内的走道、楼梯、出口等部位堆放物品等。

3.3烟气控制方面的问题

8彩彩票       YANQISHIZAOCHENGJIANZHUHUOZAIRENYUANSHANGWANGDEZHUYAOYINSU。HUOZAIZHONGDEYANQIMANYANSUDUHENKUAI,YANZHONGYINGXIANGRENYUANDESHUSANYUXIAOFANGJIUYUAN,DAOZHIRENYUANSHANGWANG。GAOCENGJIANZHUZAIFASHENGHUOZAISHIRONGYIXINGCHENGYANCONGXIAOYING,JIAKUAIYANQIDEMANYAN。

3.3.1自然排烟设置不合理

      YOUYUZAISHEJI、SHIGONGGUOCHENGZHONGBUANGUIFANYAOQIUJINXINGZIRANPAIYANSHEJI,GONGCHENGWANGONGHOUFAXIANYIXIEBUWEIBUJUBEIZIRANPAIYANTIAOJIAN;ZIRANPAIYANCHUANGDESHEZHIBUDANG[21,SHEZHIZAIQIANGDEXIABU,JUDINGBAN、DIAODINGDEJULIJIAODA,BULIYUZIRANPAIYAN;ZIRANPAIYANCHUANGDEJIEGOUBUHELI,YOUDEBAPAIYANCHUANGZUOCHENGBUKEKAIQIDEGUDINGCHUANG,YOUDEJIANGCHUANGDESHANGBUZUOCHENGGUDINGCHUANGSHAN,BAKEKAIQICHUANGSHANSHEZAIXIABU,YANZHONGYINGXIANGPAIYANGONGNENG;YOUXIECENGSHUJIAOGAODEGONGGONGJIANZHU,ANZHUANGNANDUJIAOGAO,KAIQIKUNNANDEPAIYANCHUANGWEIANZHUANGYUANCHENGKAIQICAOZUOZHUANGZHI,BULIYUHUOZAIQINGKUANGXIAPAIYANCHUANGDEKAIQI。

3.3.2机械防排烟设置不合理.防排烟效果差

8彩彩票      JIXIEFANGPAIYANXITONGYINGYUHUOZAIZIDONGBAOJINGXITONGLIANDONG,DANMUQIANQUECUNZAIBUFENGONGCHENGJINNENGTONGGUORENWEIKONGZHI,ERWEINENGSHIXIANZIDONGKONGZHI,YINGXIANGLEFANGPAIYANXIAOGUO;YOUDEGONGCHENGZAISHEZHIJIXIEJIAYASONGFENGXITONGDEBUWEITONGSHIYOUCAIYONGLEZIRANPAIYAN,DAOZHIHUOZAIQINGKUANGXIA,JIXIEJIAYASONGFENGXITONGYUPAIYANCHUANGTONGSHIKAIQISHI,FANGYANLOUTIJIANNANYIXINGCHENGZHENGYAEgl,DABUDAOLIXIANGDEFANGYANXIAOGUO。

3.3.3高层建筑门窗密封性问题

      XIANZAIRENMENDUIGAOCENGJIANZHUMENCHUANGDEFANGHUOXINGNENGYIBIJIAOZHONGSHI,DANDUITAMENDEFANGYANXINGNENGHAIZHUYIBUGOU,BUSHAOMEN、CHUANGDEBIANKUANGFENGXIJIAODA,YOUMEIYOUFANGHUOFENGTIAO,QIBUDAODANGYANXIAOGUO。ZAIYIXIEFANGYANGEQIANGHUOGEBANSHANGHAILIUYOUCHUANGUAN、CHUANXIANDEDONGKOU,TAMENYEKENENGCHENGWEIYANQIMANYANDEZHONGYAOTUJING,YOUQISHINEIXIECHUANYUELOUBANDESHUZHIDONGKOU。YIBANSHUO,ZHUANGXIUSHIGONGJIESHUHOU,YINGDANGJIANGZHEILEIDONGKOUFENGBIQILAI,WENTISHIJINGCHANGCHUXIANFENGBIBUHAODEQINGKUANG,SHIZHEILEIDONGKOUCHENGWEIFANGYANFENGEDEBORUOHUANJIE。ZHEISIHUSHIYIXIEXIJIEWENTI,DANBUSHAOHUOZAISHIGUDEKUODAQIAQIASHIHULVEZHEIFANGMIANDEWENTIZAOCHENGDE。

3.4施工方面的问题

      高层建筑在施工时常存在一些问题,这些问题也会导致日后火灾的发生,造成人员的重大伤亡。例如:新建、扩建或改建高层建筑未经消防设计审查就开始施工;未经消防许可施工中擅自变更防火设计内容;高层建筑如高级宾馆、饭店和医院病房楼的室内装修采用可燃或易燃材料;高层建筑竣工后,其消防设施经当地消防机构检查不合格,单位和个人仍自行决定使用。

3.5人员消防意识方面的问题

8彩彩票       SHEHUIDECUNZAI,JISHEHUISHENGCHANSHENGHUODEWUZHITIAOJIANJUEDINGZHERENMENDEXIAOFANGYISHI。BUKEFOUREN,XIAOFANGANQUANYISHIDEQUESHIBENSHENJIUSHIYIZHONGHUOZAIYINHUAN,WUSHIXIAOFANGFALVFAGUI,HUSHIXIAOFANGANQUANGONGZUO,WEIFANANQUANCAOZUOGUICHENG,DOUYUANZIYUXIAOFANGANQUANYISHIDEQUESHI。

4对策

4.1延长危险来临的时间

      ZAIHUOZAIZHONG,YANQISHIWEIXIERENYUANANQUANDEZHUYAOYINSU。YAOYANZHANGWEIXIANLAILINSHIJIAN,JIUBIXUSHIYANQICENGHOUDUJINLIANGJIANBO,HELISHEJIFANGHUOFENQUNENGJIANGHUOZAIJUXIANZAIJIEDINGDEFANWEINEI;ZIDONGMIEHUOXITONGYIFANGMIANKEYIPUMIECHUQIHUOZAI、JIANGDIWENDU、XIAOCHUYANQIHEXIANZHIHUOZAIDEKUOSAN,LINGYIFANGMIANKEYICHONGFENBAOHUSHUSANSHESHI,ZHEISHIHUOZAIFANGHUDEZHUYAOSHOUDUAN,YESHIRENYUANANQUANSHUSANDEZHONGYAOBAOZHENG;SHEZHIZIDONGPAIYANSHESHIYISHIXIANZHIQIHUODIANYANQIDEKUOSAN,ERSHIBAOHUSHUSANTONGDAO,GONGSHUSANRENYUANANQUANSHIYONG,SHIJIUHUODEFUZHUSHOUDUANHESHUSANTAOSHENGDEYOUXIAOCUOSHI。

4.2缩短安全疏散的时间

8彩彩票     ANQUANSHUSANSHIJIANBAOKUOANQUANSHUSANKAISHIDESHIJIANHEANQUANSHUSANXINGDONGDESHIJIAN。ZHONGDUODEHUOZAIANLIBIAOMING,HUOZAIFAXIANDEYUEZAO,RENMENKEHUODEDETAOSHENGSHIJIANYUEZHANG,SHANGWANGJIUYUESHAO;FANZHI,SHANGWANGJIUYUEDA,ERSHUSANKAISHISHIJIANZHUYAOBAOKUOHUOZAITANCEXITONGDETANCESHIJIANHERENYUANQUEREN、FANYINGSHIJIANLIANGBUFEN。HUOZAITANCEXITONGYUEXIANJINYUEWANBEI,ZEFAXIANHUOZAIDESHIJIANYUEZAO,RENYUANNENGYUEZAOKAISHISHUSAN;ERBAOJINGHETONGXUNXITONGJISHIDEGAOZHIRENMENHUOZAIXINXI,CONGERZHENGQUSHUSANKAISHISHIJIAN。

4.3设置辅助安全疏散设施

       GAOCENGJIANZHUCHULEHELISHECHANGGUIDEANQUANSHUSANSHESHIWAI,ZAIGAOCENGLVGUAN、BANGONGLOU、ZONGHELOUDENGRENYUANMIJIDEGAOCENGJIANZHUNEISHEZHIBINANTI、JIUSHENGDAI、GAOCENGJIANZHUZIDONGHUANJIANGZHUANGZHI、BINANHUAGAN、ZHISHENGJITINGJIPINGDENGFUZHUANQUANSHUSANSHESHIYESHISHIFENBIYAODE。FUZHUANQUANSHUSANSHESHIYIBANZHIQIDAOFUZHUANQUANSHUSAN、YINGJITAOSHENGBINANDEZUOYONG,SHICHANGGUISHUSANSHESHIDEBIYAOBUCHONGHEJIAQIANG,BINGYUCHANGGUIANQUANSHUSANSHESHIGONGTONGGOUCHENGWANSHANDEJIANZHUWUANQUANSHUSANXITONG。

5 安科瑞消防应急疏散系统的功能及选型

5.1 安科瑞的智能疏散系统

8彩彩票       ANKERUIDEZHINENGSHUSANXITONGYOUSANCENGWANGLUOJIEGOU。YICENG:ZHINENGSHUSANZHUJI;ERCENG:QUYUYINGJIZHAOMINGPEIDIANXIANG;SANCENG:SHUSANZHISHIBIAOZHIDENGJU,QIJUTIJIEGOUXINGSHIRUTU1SUOSHI。

TU1 ZHINENGXIAOFANGYINGJISHUSANXITONGTU

8彩彩票       ZHINENGSHUSANXITONGZHUJI:ZHUJIYOUJIAOHUSHICAOZUORUANJIANZHICHI,SHISHIJIEXIDICENGSHEBEIDEGONGZUOZHUANGTAI,JIESHOULAIZIXIAOFANGBAOJINGXITONGDEHUOJINGLIANDONGXINHAO。ZAIRICHANGWEIHUGUOCHENGZHONGSHENGGUANGBAOJINGXIANSHIGEZHONGSHEBEIGUZHANGXINXI,JUBEIRIZHIDECHAXUN、JILU、DAYINGONGNENG;ZAIHUOZAIFASHENGSHI,GENJUHUOZAILIANDONGXINHAOXUANZEXIANGYINGDEYINGJIYUAN,QIDONGGELEIYINGJISHUSANZHISHIDENG。

       QUYUYINGJIZHAOMINGPEIDIANXIANGZUOWEIXITONGNEIWEIDENGJUGONGDIANDEGONGPEIDIANZHUANGZHI,TONGSHIJUBEIJIESHOUZHUJIDEXUNJIANKONGZHI、GONGDIANHUILUDEDIANQIGELI、HUILUZHINENGKONGZHI、HUILUXINHAOHUIJI,JIAKUAIZHUJIDUIDICENGDENGJUDEXUNJIANSUDU,JIANGDIXINHAOGANRAO,GAISHANTONGXINZHILIANGDENGGONGNENG。

8彩彩票       SHUSANZHISHIBIAOZHIDENGJU,JIZHONGDIANYUANJIZHONGKONGZHIXINGSHUSANZHISHIDENGWEIRENYUANSHUSANTAOSHENGZHIYINFANGXIANG。QIANZHUANGFANGSHIYOUBIGUASHI、DIAOGUASHI、DIMAISHISANZHONG,ZHUYAOSHEZHIYUFANGHUOFENQUDEANQUANCHUKOUDENGCHU。JIZHONGDIANYUANJIZHONGKONGZHIXINGYINGJIZHAOMINGDENGJU,QIZHUYAOWEIRENYUANSHUSANTAOSHENGTIGONGZHAOMING,ANZHUANGFANGSHIYOUBIGUASHI、XIDINGSHI、QIANDINGSHISANZHONG。

5.2产品选型表

控制器和集中电源选型表

集中电源

分配电装置

灯具选型表

6结束语 

       BENWENCONGGAOCENGJIANZHUHUOZAITEDIANJIQIDUIRENYUANSHENGMINGANQUANDEWEIHAIZHESHOU ,ZONGSHUFENXILE GAOCENGHUOZAIANQUANSHUSANFANGMIANDEGUIFANYUYAOQIU ,BINGZAICIJICHUSHANGDE CHUDEJIELUNKEZONGJIEWEIYI XIAJIDIAN:

       (1)XIANDAIGAOCENGJIANZHUZHONGLEIFANDUO,GONGNENGFUZA,JIYIYINQIHUOZAI ,YINCI ,GAOCENGJIANZHUDE ANQUANSHUSANWENTIBIANDEYOUWEIZHONGYAO;

     (2)XIANXING DEGUIFANGUIDINGDESHUJUSHICONGHUOZAIANLIZONGJIEERLAIDEJINGYANSHUJU,BINGFEIKEXUE SHIYANERLAI,CUNZAIYIDINGJUXIANXING,DUIYUTESHUXINGSHIDEGAOCENGJIANZHUBINGBUSHIYONG ;

8彩彩票       (3)DADUOSHUANQUANSHUSANSHEJIDOU YINENGGOUZAIJIAODUANDESHIJIANNEISHUSANWEIZHUYAO MUDE,YOUSHI BUWEIRENKAOLV ,SHIRENYUANZAISHUSANZHONGRONGYISHOUSHANG ,WEICIZAISHEJI SHIJIARULEYIXIE “RENXINGHUA” DESHEJI ;

       (4)CHULECHANGGUIDEANQUANSHUSANSHESHIWAI,SHEZHIFUZHUANQUANSHUSANSHESHIYESHISHIFENBIYAOHE KEXINGDE。

参考文献 

8彩彩票      [1] OUYANGYURU .GAOCENG JIANZHUANQUANSHUSANSHEJICHUTAN HENAN:GONGCHENG JIANSHE YUSHEJI,2005(9): 34-38. 

      [2] JIANGYONGKUN GAOCENGJIANZHUXIAOFANGSHEJISHOUCE[M]SHANGHAI:TONGJIDAXUECHUBANSHE,1995

8彩彩票      [3]  YANGAOFENG GAOCENGJIANZHUANQUANSHUSANYANJIU

      [4] ANKERUIQIYEWEIDIANWANGSHEJIYUYINGYONGSHOUCE.2019.11YUEBAN

8彩彩票      [5]ANKERUIXIAOFANGYINGJIZHAOMINGHESHUSANZHISHIXITONG/FANGHUOMENJIANKONGXITONG/XIAOFANGSHEBEIDIANYUANJIANKONGXITONG/DIANQIHUOZAIJIANKONGXITONGXUANXINGSHOUCE.2019.7YUEBAN

8彩彩票ZUOZHEJIANJIE:MOUJIANMEI,NV,ANKERUIDIANQIGUFEN8CAICAIPIAO,ZHUYAOCONGSHIDIANQIFANGHUOXIANLIUSHIBAOHUQIDEYANFAYUYINGYONG

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